The algorithm was invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (http://www.nist.gov) has selected the algorithm as an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
The cipher has a variable block length and key length. Authors of the algorithm currently specify how to use keys with a length of 128, 192, or 256 bits to encrypt blocks with a length of 128 bits.
BestCrypt uses Rijndael with a 256-bit key in LRW and XTS modes.
To get more information on the algorithm, visit the Wiki Page: Advanced Encryption Standard.
The Blowfish is a fast encryption algorithm designed by Bruce Schneier. Bruce Schneier is well known as the president of Counterpane Systems, a security consulting firm, and the author of Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code.
The Blowfish encryption algorithm was specially designed to encrypt data on 32-bit microprocessors. Blowfish is significantly faster than DES and GOST when implemented on 32-bit microprocessors, such as the Pentium or Power PC.
The original Blowfish paper was presented at the First Fast Software Encryption workshop in Cambridge, UK (proceedings published by Springer-Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Science #809, 1994) and in the April 1994 issue of Dr. Dobbs Journal. In addition, "Blowfish--One Year Later" appeared in the September 1995 issue of Dr. Dobb's Journal.
BestCrypt uses the Blowfish with 448-bit key length, 16 rounds and 128-bit blocks in LRW mode.
CAST-128 (described in RFC-2144 document http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2144.html) is a popular 64-bit block cipher allowing key sizes up to 128 bits. The name CAST stands for Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares, the inventors of CAST.
BestCrypt uses CAST with 128-bit key in LRW mode.
The Government Standard of the USSR 28147-89, Cryptographic protection for Data Protection Systems, appears to have played the role in the former Soviet Union (not only in Russia) similar to that played by the US Data Encryption Standard (FIPS 46). When issued, GOST bore the minimal classification 'For Official Use,' but is now said to be widely available in software both in the former Soviet Union and elsewhere. The introduction to GOST 28147-89 contains an intriguing remark that the cryptographic transformation algorithm "does not put any limitations on the secrecy level of the protected information."
The GOST 28147-89 standard includes output feedback and cipher feedback modes of operation, both limited to 64-bit blocks, and a mode for producing message authentication codes.
BestCrypt uses GOST 28147-89 with 256-bit key in LRW mode.
RC6 block cipher was designed by Ron Rivest in collaboration with Matt Robshaw, Ray Sidney, and Yiqun Lisa Yin from RSA Laboratories. RSA's RC6 encryption algorithm was selected among the other finalists to become the new federal Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Visit Wikipedia (Rivest cipher 6) to get more information on the algorithm.
BestCrypt uses the RC6 with 256-bit key and 128-bit blocks in LRW and XTS modes.
Serpent is a block cipher developed by Ross Anderson, Eli Biham and Lars Knudsen. Serpent can work with different combinations of key lengths. Serpent was also selected among other five finalists to become the new federal Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
BestCrypt uses Serpent in LRW and XTS modes with a 256-bit key, 128-bits blocks and 32 rounds.
Twofish encryption algorithm was designed by Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Chris Hall, Niels Ferguson, David Wagner and Doug Whiting. It is is a symmetric block cipher; a single key is used for encryption and decryption. Twofish has a block size of 128 bits and accepts keys of any length up to 256 bits.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) investigated Twofish as one of the candidates for the replacement of the DES encryption algorithm. As the authors of the algorithm state, "we have spent over one thousand hours cryptanalyzing Twofish, and have found no attacks that go anywhere near breaking the full 16-round version of the cipher."
BestCrypt uses a full 16-round version of Twofish and a maximum possible 256-bit encryption key length in LRW and XTS modes.
Camellia is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes of 128, 192 and 256 bits. It was jointly developed by Mitsubishi Electric and NTT of Japan. The cipher has been approved for use by the ISO/IEC, the European Union's NESSIE project and the Japanese CRYPTREC project. The cipher has security levels and processing abilities comparable to the AES.